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How to Normalize Audio Loudness and Avoid Overload [User Guide]

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PCM, DSD file conversion can cause overload. DSD files may have lower loudness for sigma-delta modulator stability. Read how to normalize audio loudness (with level maximizing) of album.

Audio Converter - How maximize loudness without overload



Download HD audio converter AuI ConverteR 48x44 FREE for high resolution music
WAV, FLAC, AIFF, ALAC, (1-bit audio) ISO, DFF, DSF, WMA, mp3,...

WARNING: Input DSF, DFF, ISO (1-bit audio) supported in Audiophil-E, PROduce-R and configurable Modula-R
Output DSF supported in maximal PROduce-RD and configurable Modula-R
For ISO tracks, DSF, DFF with length more 3 minutes FREE demo mute 2 second silence in the output middle

Video: How to maximize loudness

Reasons of overload during conversion audio

The headroom (as rule 6 dB) used for stable work of sigma delta modulator (DSD encoder).

Sigma delta modulator due overload can lose stability. It can be listened as continuous tone. Stability can be restored by reset the encoder.

However, sometimes possibly increase loudness without instability of DSD encoder.

If input audio signal have amplitude near maximum, upsampling can cause overload.

Let look to the picture:

Oversampling can cause overload

 

After upsampling (oversampling) between real samples of original signal appears "virtual" samples that appear due interpolation.

Amplitudes of some "virtual" samples can be upper than original samples. If peak level of original samples near maximal allowable value, "virtual" samples can be upper the value.

It can cause overload.

 

How to normalize audio and avoid overload

For avoiding same overloading during audio conversion need perform correction of output file levels.

Such conversion executed in 2 stages:

1. Measurement real output peak levels after audio conversion

2. Correction levels of output files.

 

Example 1 (normalizing audio with overload avoiding):

Output file #1 have peak level    -1 dB.

Output file #2     +2 dB.

Maximum peak level here +2 dB.

For avoiding overload need decrease level of output file #2 at 2 dB. It will have peak level 0 dB (= +2 dB - 2 dB).

Output file #1 level need decrease at 2 dB too. It will have peak level -3 dB (= -1 dB - 2 dB).

 

Example 2 (normalizing audio with loudness maximizing):

Output file #1 have peak level    -1 dB.

Output file #2     -2 dB.

Maximum peak level here -2 dB.

Here possible increase level of both output files. Output file #1 at 1 dB. It will have peak level 0 dB (= -1 dB + 1 dB).

Output file #2 level need increase at 1 dB too. It will have peak level -1 dB (= -2 dB + 1 dB).

 

 

How to normalize audio for group of albums

Sometimes need total normalize peak loudness for several albums. Album here is either folder with songs or ISO-file or CD.

AuI ConverteR found peak levels for all tracks of all albums.

There are 2 ways maximizing loudness with avoiding of overload:

  1. Equalize levels by total peak level of all tracks in all albums (see picture below: By total peak).
  2. For each album equalize levels by peak level of the album (By directory).

 

How AuI ConverteR 48x44 process groups of albums

 

AuI ConverteR's level control modes

AuI ConverteR's level control modes

1. Manual

Volume don't auto adjusted during conversion.

 

2. Analyze without converting

Analyzing level of output audio files without recording it to hard disk. Results will displayed at table in Levels tab of main window of AuI ConverteR 48x44.

 

3. To max peak

Auto maximizing peak levels output files without overload. How it work see here and here.

 

Remarks:

  1. Auto loudness normalization applied in PROduce-RD edition only (in Modula-R edition as option Auto Level Normalization add-on).
  2. Output file volume slider counted during all modes. For PROduce-RD edition Output file volume slider placed in Parameters tab of main window of AuI ConverteR 48x44.
  3. For conversion to DSF files forced small (about -0.4 dB) additional attenuation for better stability of sigma delta modulator.
  4. Stability troubles (tone(s) or silence  in recording) linked with overload of sigma delta modulator (for to DSF conversion). After breaking of stability, it is not restored during end of file.

Allowable maximal peak level of signal encoded to DSF can cause stability troubles sometimes.

Stability depend on impact time of maximal level to input of DSD encoder.

If AuI ConverteR have stability troubles to you files recommended use additional attenuation: in Settings window (push Settings button in main window) > General tab need set for switch Sigma delta modulator attenuator value discrepant zero.

More attenuation (more negative number) - less probability of breaking stability of DSD encoder.

However, it decrease loudness of converted file too.

Sigma delta modulator attenuator for increasing of stability

 

 


Read more

Downmix 5.1 to stereo >

 

 

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