Electrical Resistance. As Voltage and Current Relate [Audio Physics for Beginners]
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Electrical Resistance. As Voltage and Current Relate [Audio Physics for Beginners]

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In the previous articles we are considered what is voltage and current. Read below about the electrical resistance and as voltage and current relate.

What is electrical resistance

What is electrical resistance

When we considered electrical current, we looks to electrons what moved across the «pipe» (wire). All things, author have described in the article, don't pretend to full correctness from latest physics point of view. Because elementary particles too complicated. But we will learn simplified processes in the first approach to better understand.


Electric current

Electric current into wire


But "pipe" (wire) is not empty. It contains crystal grid: wire's molecular matrix.

Electrons "stumbled" about the grid.

Electrical resistance and crystal grid

Electrical resistance and crystal grid


Grid «resists» to moving of the electrons. When electron "stumbled" by grid, heat is appear.

Energy of electrons converted to heat. More resistance - more energy of electrons is converted to heat.

The resistance is called as R.


Read below how voltage and current relate.


How to work electrical schemes

To review of the schemes we will consider stream of "virtual" positive particles (further "particles") from "+" to "-" of power source.

Let's look to basic electrical scheme.

Basic electrical scheme

Basic electrical scheme


Voltage is potential between 2 points -  contacts of power source (battery).

The potential create force that move the particles.

More potential, more force, more particle speed.

Scheme is a closed loop: particles moves from "+" to "-" of energy source (battery).

Inside the battery the particles are moved from "-" to "+" thru conductor. For such "unnatural" movement, energy of power source are spent. It is like climb into the mountain.

Further the particles "naturally" move from "+" to "-" out of power source again (like down from the mountain).


Particle movement into electrical scheme

Particle movement into electrical scheme


Therefore, the particles moves thru closed loop until power source keep potential and internal particle transportation ability.

When particles move down from the "mountain", they get "resistance" by crystal grid.

The resistance limit speed of the movement. So lesser particle number of pass thru the wire, i.e. higher resistance cause lesser amperage.


To increase amperage we can increase potential or reduce resistance.



How voltage and current relate. Ohm's law

Voltage, amperage and resistance are bound via Ohm's law:

V = I * R, where

V  is voltage (V, Volt),

I is amperage (A, Ampere),

R is resistance (Ohm).

The formula describe above mentioned sentence: to increase amperage we can increase voltage (potential) or reduce resistance. Let's look to modified formula:

I = V / R.

Voltage can be increased by adding more batteries. Resistance can be reduced by wire's material replacement or radius increasing.


What is electrical resistance formula?


So, electrical resistance formula is:

R = V / I, where

V  is voltage (V, Volt),

I is amperage (A, Ampere),

R is resistance (Ohm).



In the next article we will look how energy and power relate to current, voltage and resistance.


< Electric current                 Electrical power and energy >


Yuri Korzunov,

Audiophile Inventory's developer


Frequently Asked Questions

What is meant by 1 ohm?

If we put 1 Volt on a resistor, and the resistor allows 1 Amper currency, that means that the resistor has 1 Ohm value.



October 4, 2022 updated | since August 9, 2017

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